A panorama head holds the camera in the correct position so that it turns around the optical center of the lens, known as the ‘no parallax point’ or NPP for short, rather than the traditional rotation point of ordinary tripod mounts. This ensures that where one shot overlaps with another for stitching, there will be no problem with things in the foreground appearing to shift relative to those in the background.
Almost every panoramic head can work with many different cameras and lenses (lens ring heads are the only exception), so they need to be adjusted so they hold your particular camera and lens in the correct position. They also need to turn enough to provide the preferred 25 to 30% or so of overlap between shots so stitching and blending can work smoothly.
Use a proper 360 panoramic head that positions the camera so that it rotates around the lens’s NPP, not around the camera’s tripod mounting socket. Not all equipment sold as ‘panoramic’ is meant for this specific kind of work. Panorama heads from Nodal Ninja, Precision360, Manfrotto and some other manufacturers are suitable for professional 360 work, but always double check that something is really meant for 360 photography, not just wide landscape photos.
Use the widest angle lens you can. A fisheye lens from 8 to 16mm is generally best, with the 8-11mm range being most suitable for cameras with cropped (APS-C, DX) rather than full-size sensors. Rectilinear lenses can be used, but even very wide lenses require significantly more shots to cover a full 360 scene so those are better when you have some experience with this work.